At the heart of Central Asia, Kirghizstan is a landlocked country with borders on Kazakhstan, China, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. It is particularly mountainous, with the main ranges and foothills of the Tien Shan covering fully three quarters of the land area. Sometimes known as the ‘Switzerland of Central Asia', its high valleys are home to often nomadic pastoralist people who make their living from herds of sheep, goats and horses. Less than 10% of the country is cultivable. Issyk-Kul Lake in the north-east of the country is a stand-out feature and, at some 180 kilometres long, is the second largest mountain lake in the world after Lake Titicaca. The capital city of Bishkek is centrally situated on the northern border with Kazakhstan and is home to around 1 million people. Kirghizstan's early history is centred on the Silk Route and trading between Turkic people, including the Uyghers, while Genghis Khan extended his influence over all of this region in the early 13th century. Between 1876 and 1991, Kirghizstan was controlled by Russia and then incorporated within the Soviet Union. Since gaining independence, its name has officially become the Kyrgyz Republic.